| Results of the Analysis
The 469 annuals were found to have been published principally in three locations: 34 percent in Boston; 33 percent in Philadelphia, 28 percent in New York, and 5 percent from a dozen other locations in the northeastern United States. The period of annual publication from 1826 to 1865 began with New York and Philadelphia being more important literary centers than Boston. New England literary activity achieved its preeminence in literary publishing in the 1850s (Charvat 170). This literary dominance of Boston is evidenced in Table 1 where the "origin" of the top American annuals authors is: 62 percent New England; 20 percent New York; and 18 percent Philadelphia.
The analysis revealed that at least 39 percent of the American annuals contained contributions from previously published British literary annuals. There is also a strong showing of British authors in the American annuals of 33 out of the 103 authors shown in Table 1. In the preliminary screening of 507 authors, 107 were British authors and their works constituted 21 percent or 1,690 out of 7,496 items published by contributors of five or more items. If we consider all 13,936 items indexed for the 469 annuals, 1,917 items or about 14 percent are identified as British in origin. Of these 1,917 items only 65 percent or 1,247 have been positively identified, primarily because the titles of the remainder were changed in the American annual printings. A cross- reference of the identified British titles published in American annuals is available from the author. Of the 1,247 British items listed, 754 items were poetic selections occupying 1,724 pages and 490 items were prose selections occupying 9,124 pages. These data allow the estimate of the average poetry selection length of 2.3 pages and the average prose selection length of 18.6 pages. Very few of these foreign writers were direct contributors to American annuals, and it is highly unlikely that the British authors received any remuneration from the American annuals because the inception of international copyright agreements was after their demise.
As might be expected, given the feminine appeal that many annual publishers promoted, women authors constitute 41 percent, or 42 of the 103 annual authors, and 51 percent, or 17 of the 33 editors. In fact, eight of the top ten authors in Table 1 are female. Mrs. Lydia Huntley Sigourney (No.1) is by far the most prolific author with 202 contributions, or almost 1.5 percent of the 13,936 total. She was an educator, poet, and prose writer who published more than 65 books over a six decade career. As shown in Table 2, she was a vigorous and consistent contributor of primarily poetry from 1828 to 1859 or over most of the entire life cycle of American annuals. She edited the Religious Souvenir in 1839 and 1840. Mrs. Sigourney was considered the American counterpart of Felicia Hemans, the popular British poet, who also appears in Table 1 as number eight in the American annual top ten with 81 items. Mrs. Sigourney published 21 items in British annuals. Thompson in his assessment of banal verse in the annuals cites as typical Mrs. Sigourney's poem entitled "Monody on the Death of the Principal of the Connecticut Retreat for the Insane" in The Token for 1835 (Thompson 29). Hannah Frances Gould, (No.2) the runner-up with 139 contributions, was a poet and popular writer on patriotic and religious subjects, nature, and child life. Table 2 shows that she also consistently contributed to the annuals over their life cycle.
Only two male authors were in the top ten contributors. Nathaniel Parker Willis, (1806-1867) was a journalist and editor of "American Monthly Magazine," and "New York Daily Mirror." He was a pioneer foreign correspondent, and a travel writer second only to Washington Irving. Willis, author of 101 annual contributions, edited four different annuals: Legendary of 1828; Token of 1829; and after an interim Opal of 1850; and Gem of the Season 1850. The other male author, Reynell Coates, edited Leaflets of Memory from 1845 to 1852 which accounts for all but 6 of his 93 contributions to annuals as shown in Table 2.